Ocean Caraibes - Coastal & Environmental Consulting, Engineering & Oceanography


Coastal, Environmental & Water Resources Engineers

   Cell:  767.235.5962

Office:  767.448.5960
Skype:  ocean.caraibes

E-Mail: ocean@cwdom.dm 

        or: cljconsultant@gmail.com

    BIOROCK® Artificial Reef Development


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    Also See Artificial Reef Development

                  ► Corral Reef Nature Trail

Artificial coral reefs
created by


Environmentally friendly, reliable, proven successful.



Thomas J. Goreau, PhD (Harvard)

& Ocean Caraibes




The Biorock® method, invented, developed, and patented by the late Prof. Wolf HIlbertz and Dr. Thomas J. Goreau, uses low voltage direct currents (above 1.2 Volts) to grow solid limestone minerals on conductive substrates. The minerals grown are naturally present in large amounts in seawater, but will not crystallize out by themselves.


The electrical current used is safe to humans and all marine organisms, all of which are seen to be attracted, and none repelled. The low current also completely prevents rusting of steel substrates, indeed it reverses any rusting that had previously occurred. The strength of Biorock materials is an inverse function of growth rate, but is typically around 3 times the compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement concrete if grown at less than 1-2 centimeters per year.


Biorock construction materials are the only known marine construction materials that are growing, get constantly stronger with age (while all others deteriorate), and are unique in being self-repairing, since any physically damaged areas grow back preferentially. There is no limit in principle to the size or shape of Biorock structures, they could be grown hundreds of miles long if funding allowed.


Protection of Steel Pilings and other Structures Against Rusting


As toxic chemicals used to protect wood pilings against marine boring organisms are being banned, construction managers are increasingly relying on steel pilings for marine related projects. However, steel pilings rust and eventually collapse, causing pilings and piers to be periodically rebuilt at great cost. The Biorock process reverses rusting on steel pilings, turning red iron oxide (“rust”) back into iron, and then coating it in a protective limestone rock coating that attracts oysters, mussels, corals, fish, and crabs, turning it into productive habitat. Using Biorock steel pilings can be preserved, eliminating the need for costly replacement.

The Biorock process
reverses rusting
on steel pilings.


Repair and Strengthening of...

Reinforced Concrete Piers - Docks - Breakwaters - Seawalls - Wharves


The electrical current used, which stimulates the growth of the solid limestone minerals, is safe to humans and all marine organisms.

Reinforced concrete quickly deteriorates in the marine environment as the internal steel reinforcing bars rust and expands, cracking off the concrete, with the structures eventually crumbling and collapsing. Using Biorock, the rusting is reversed, and all cracks in the concrete are filled in with hard limestone rock.


The electrical current used, which stimulates the growth of the solid limestone minerals, is safe to humans and all marine organisms.


Marine concrete structures can therefore maintain their strength, and the cost of rebuilding them eliminated. Structures built of rock armor or concrete tetrapods move in heavy wave action, falling apart and needing to be rebuilt. Biorock can armor such structures, cementing the rocks and tetrapods in place, eliminating the need for costly rebuilding.


Our patented method will protect the large investment you have in steel pilings from rusting and enable us to make in situ repairs and strengthen concrete structures at a minimum cost.


Photos & graphics
provided by Ari Spenhoff

              Also See Artificial Reef Development      Corral Reef Nature Trail